Quantitative Research Design. Will G Hopkins. Sportscience 4 1sportsci. In quantitative research your aim is to determine the relationship between one thing an independent variable and another a dependent or outcome variable in a population. Quantitative research designs are either descriptive subjects usually measured once or experimental subjects measured before and after a treatment.
A descriptive study establishes only associations between variables. An experiment establishes causality.
For an accurate estimate of the relationship between variables, a descriptive study usually needs a sample of hundreds or even thousands of subjects; an experiment, especially a crossover, may need only tens of subjects.
The estimate of the relationship is less likely to be biased if you have a high participation rate in a sample selected randomly from a population. In experiments, bias is also less likely if subjects are randomly assigned to treatments, and if subjects and researchers are blind to the identity of the treatments.
In all studies, subject characteristics can affect the relationship you are investigating. Limit their effect either by using a less heterogeneous sample of subjects or preferably by measuring the characteristics and including them in the analysis.
In an experiment, try to measure variables that might explain the mechanism of the treatment. In an unblinded experiment, such variables can help define the magnitude of any placebo effect. Reprint doc. Update July Go to Sportscience for an updated version of this article, including a print-friendly PDF and Powerpoint slideshow.
Quantitative research is all about quantifying relationships between variables. Variables are things like weight, performance, time, and treatment. You measure variables on a sample of subjects, which can be tissues, cells, animals, or humans. You express the relationship between variable using effect statistics, such as correlations, relative frequencies, or differences between means. I deal with these statistics and other aspects of analysis elsewhere at this site.
In this article I focus on the design of quantitative research. First I describe the types of study you can use. Next I discuss how the nature of the sample affects your ability to make statements about the relationship in the population. I then deal with various ways to work out the size of the sample. Finally I give advice about the kinds of variable you need to measure. Studies aimed at quantifying relationships are of two types: descriptive and experimental Table 1.
In a descriptive study, no attempt is made to change behavior or conditions--you measure things as they are. In an experimental study you take measurements, try some sort of intervention, then take measurements again to see what happened. Descriptive or observational.Quantitative research design has an interesting interpretation and aim.
Its purpose is to get how many people think, act or feel in one concrete way. Quantitative projects are concentrated in big groups, and they concentrate only on the number of concrete responses. Here we see the difference between qualitative vs.
The standard format of how the quantitative research is going on is easy. Data is adopted in a format of numbers and can be analyzed in a quantifiable way using the statistical method. Surveys can, however, be tailored to branch off if the respondent answers in a certain way — for instance, people who are satisfied or dissatisfied with a service may be asked different questions subsequently.
Quantitative research design tends to favor closed-ended questions. Providing respondents with a set list of answers, they will not normally be able to give lengthy open-ended responses. This design ensures that the process of quantitative research is far more efficient than it would be if qualitative-style open-ended questions were employed.
Though this definition is understandable, it is not correct. The same case we have with quantitative research. The numbers that quantitative research design ultimately capture are not ultimately what the effort and investment are about. It is about the actionable insights. In other words: it is about taking those numbers and using them to make smarter business decisions. What is a good quantitative research design? It means that the process will be individualized by searching a lot on the Internet or talking by the phone, or texting people.
As you may have seen on different sites, there are a lot of advantages and disadvantages to each of the methods existing in the design. They include price sizes, time, quality, analysis, automation, standardization, and so on. You have to bear in mind that there is no ideal method, but there is the one, which matches exactly for you.
But to feel yourself in maximum safe you need to find the proper mix to minimize bias and data loss. Below you will see four types of quantitative research design. Descriptive Design Research The quantitative research design is depended on the project which uses quantitative research methods.
Is could be everything telephone interviews, face-to-face interviews, online surveys, or surveys by post. Welcome to the world of case studies that can bring you high grades! Here, at ACaseStudy. I'm Anna. Would you like to get a custom case study?
How about receiving a customized one? What is Quantitative Research Design? Methods of Quantitative Research Design What is a good quantitative research design?
Also, it is used when a typical research design is not practicable. The independent variable is manipulated to observe the effect on the depended variable. For example, a certain group is exposed to a variable and then compared with the group not exposed to the variable. These analyses are generated from existing data. Related posts: What is Qualitative Research Design? Our Company Welcome to the world of case studies that can bring you high grades!
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Quantitative Research Design: Definition, Methods and Types
WordPress Shortcode. Published in: Education. Full Name Comment goes here. Are you sure you want to Yes No.We try to change the existing outcome or disease by making a change to exposure or a factor under study.
The variable to be manipulated is the independent variable. We can have either one control group or more than 1 control group. The minimum of one control group is needed in an experimental study. It reduces the selection bias. There should be a valid comparison. It is not about fruit, it is about comparisons. It is a way to divide the collection of participants into two or more groups to increase our confidence that the groups do not differ systematically. It is a mechanical method and it is automatic.
Blinding is a procedure in which one or more parties in a trial are kept unaware of which treatment was received. Blinding is an important aspect of any trial done to avoid and prevent conscious or unconscious bias in the design. Blinding is done to prevent bias. This is also called the one-group posttest-only design. There is only one group, a treatment, and a posttest. There is no random assignment. The participants begin employment, and you record the amount in tips for all for one month posttest score.
There is one group, pretest, treatment, and posttest. It lacks a control group and random assignment. Measure the dependent variable before and after the treatment. It is an improved method. You take a group of forty newly hired wait staff and give all a 2-hour training session. You instruct the staff members to follow a script in which they are not to introduce themselves by the first name and not to return during the meal to check on the customers.
All begin employment, and you record the amount in tips for all for one month pretest score.Comparative research essentially compares two groups in an attempt to draw a conclusion about them.
Researchers attempt to identify and analyze similarities and differences between groups, and these studies are most often cross-national, comparing two separate people groups. Comparative studies can be used to increase understanding between cultures and societies and create a foundation for compromise and collaboration.
These studies contain both quantitative and qualitative research methods. Quantitative, or experimental, research is characterized by the manipulation of an independent variable to measure and explain its influence on a dependent variable. Because comparative research studies analyze two different groups -- which may have very different social contexts -- it is difficult to establish the parameters of research.
Such studies might seek to compare, for example, large amounts of demographic or employment data from different nations that define or measure relevant research elements differently. However, the methods for statistical analysis of data inherent in quantitative research are still helpful in establishing correlations in comparative studies. Also, the need for a specific research question in quantitative research helps comparative researchers narrow down and establish a more specific comparative research question.
Qualitative, or nonexperimental, is characterized by observation and recording outcomes without manipulation.Selecting a Research Design
In comparative research, data are collected primarily by observation, and the goal is to determine similarities and differences that are related to the particular situation or environment of the two groups. These similarities and differences are identified through qualitative observation methods.
Additionally, some researchers have favored designing comparative studies around a variety of case studies in which individuals are observed and behaviors are recorded. The results of each case are then compared across people groups. Comparative research studies should be used when comparing two people groups, often cross-nationally.
These studies analyze the similarities and differences between these two groups in an attempt to better understand both groups. Comparisons lead to new insights and better understanding of all participants involved. These studies also require collaboration, strong teams, advanced technologies and access to international databases, making them more expensive. Use comparative research design when the necessary funding and resources are available.
Do not use comparative research design with little funding, limited access to necessary technology and few team members. Because of the larger scale of these studies, they should be conducted only if adequate population samples are available.
Additionally, data within these studies require extensive measurement analysis; if the necessary organizational and technological resources are not available, a comparative study should not be used. Do not use a comparative design if data are not able to be measured accurately and analyzed with fidelity and validity. She has been a writer since and wrote regularly for the sports and features sections of "The Technician" newspaper, as well as "Coastwach" magazine. Richardson also served as the co-editor-in-chief of "Windhover," an award-winning literary and arts magazine.
She is currently teaching at a middle school. Regardless of how old we are, we never stop learning. Classroom is the educational resource for people of all ages. Based on the Word Net lexical database for the English Language. See disclaimer. Related Articles.AfterShip has been excellent so far.
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Informal Informal words should be reserved for casual, colloquial communication. What does Tis the Season mean. Important as is the review, the preview or assignment is equally vital. Like so many others in the nerd world, I fell in love with Cards Against Humanity through its Kickstarter preview in 2011. And that may be just a preview, if local Taliban commanders are to be believed.Thesis committee portland state university
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Freaky 60s Slang Explained 15 Quotes About the Power of Words How to Name Your Beard Browse more topics on our blog What Is the Difference Between Discreet and Discrete. Learn the correct uses of these two commonly confused homophones. Preview makes it easy to view and edit Portable Document Files (PDFs) and popular image files including JPEG, TIFF, and PNG.
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QUANTITATIVE METHODS: EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN
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