Crater experiment coursework

Children examine images of Moon craters and speculate about what caused them. Next, they model the formation of an impact crater. They do this by dropping balls of different sizes and weights from three heights into a tray with layers of different colored powders. They examine the effects of each impact and the features that each impact creates.

Children measure crater sizes and draw ejecta patterns to see what effect size, weight, and velocity have on the resulting craters. Finally, children compare the patterns in their testing with the patterns of craters on the Moon to see if their modeling experience gives them additional insights into crater formation.

To find out children's ideas of how craters form, have them look at photographs of the Moon. Ask: What are the parts of a crater? What factors might affect a crater's appearance? To examine craters, almost any image of the Moon or Mars will do. Most craters have deep central depressions, raised rims, and a blanket of ejected material surrounding them. Factors that affect the appearance include the nature of the surface and the speed, size, and mass of the impactor.

Divide the children into groups of two to four. Have them put on safety glasses and go to a station. Caution them that during the activity, the dry powders may be dispersed into the air and could get in their eyes, so they must wear eye protection e.

Set up each station with a pan, yardstick, ruler, bag of balls, and data sheet. Spread newspapers under the pan s to catch spills or consider doing the activity outside. Dropping balls of different mass from the same height allows children to study the relationship of mass to crater size.

Dropping balls of different sizes from the same height allows children to study the relationship of volume to crater size.

Dropping balls from different heights allows children to study the relationship of velocity speed to crater size. If the pan surface becomes highly disturbed, resmooth it. The modest amount of mixing of colored and white materials should still enable children to collect data. However, if the surface becomes so disturbed that it is hard for children to analyze the impacts, apply a new layer of colored material, covered with a layer of white material.

Have children determine the depth of the craters using toothpicks, measuring this length with a ruler. Depending on the children's level, you may want to use the term "weight" instead of "mass".

Weight depends on gravity while mass is a property of matter independent of gravity. Because all impacts occur under constant gravitational conditions, you can use either weight or mass.

When the teams finish testing, bring the group together. Have the children compare and contrast their hypotheses on what factors affect the appearance of craters and ejecta. Discuss the following questions:. The higher the drop height, the greater the velocity of the ball. At any given height, the most massive ball will have the greatest effect.

Gravity accelerates all objects equally, irrespective of mass. Thus the more massive ball will gain more energy as it falls, resulting in a more forceful impact with deeper craters and ejecta spread out farther.This is a great and very easy activity for learning about how craters form.

Did you know the surface of the moon has millions of craters, varying from just a few metres across to hundreds of kilometres? A crater is a bowl-shaped depression formed by the impact of a meteorite, volcanic activity, or an explosion. You should find that if you drop the same size marbles from different heights the one that has furthest to fall will make the largest crater as it is moving faster, it has more energy.

The surface of the moon is marked by millions of craters, some are just a few metres long and some hundreds of kilometres. Barringer Crater also known as Meteor Crater in Arizona was created instantly when a meter foot,ton meteorite slammed into the desert around 50, years ago. The Chicxulub Crateroff the Gulf of Mexico is thought to be the impact site of the meteor which wiped out or contributed greatly to the extinction of the dinosaurs at the end of the Cretaceous period 65 million years ago.

Read more about the biggest craters on Earth on Live Science. The oldest and largest impact crater on Earth is the Vredefort crater in South Africa. It is estimated to have originally been miles kilometers across. A huge meteorite or asteroid created this giant crater 2. Most of them use items you probably already have in the house. What are you waiting for? Science Sparks Wild Sparks Enterprises Ltd are not liable for the actions of activity of any person who uses the information in this resource or in any of the suggested further resources.

Science Sparks assume no liability with regard to injuries or damage to property that may occur as a result of using the information and carrying out the practical activities contained in this resource or in any of the suggested further resources.

These activities are designed to be carried out by children working with a parent, guardian or other appropriate adult.

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The adult involved is fully responsible for ensuring that the activities are carried out safely. I love it — the way that the flour comes to the surface really explains how there is difference in the colours of the moon surface. Got to try this out. The boys dropped various sized rocks into a pie plate filled with flour overlaid with cocoa to see […].

Your email address will not be published. What is a crater? What you need for a crater experiment A shallow metal pan Plain white flour Drinking chocolate Marbles and different sized balls. Making Craters with Marbles Fill the pan about 2 cm deep with flour, lightly sprinkle the drinking chocolate to cover the entire surface. To make a model of the surface of the moon, drop the marbles into the pan, the marbles act as the crashing asteroids and comets. Notice how the marbles make craters in the pan.

The soil below the surface white flour is brought to the surface. Try with different sizes and weights of balls and see if the craters are deeper or different shapes. Why do craters form?

Craters on Earth Barringer Crater also known as Meteor Crater in Arizona was created instantly when a meter foot,ton meteorite slammed into the desert around 50, years ago. Mount Erebus in Antarctica, has a lava lake in its summit crater. What is the oldest crater on Earth? Download the Instructions.Craters are round, bowl-shaped depressions surrounded by a ring, like the one shown in Figure 1.

They are made when a meteorite collides with a planet or a moon. The craters are what make our moon look like Swiss cheese. Each round hole is the place where a meteorite impactedor hit, the surface of the moon, so craters are often called impact craters. Often, the meteorite that creates a crater explodes on impact, so the crater is an empty reminder of the collision.

There are meteoroids traveling around throughout space, and all of the moons and planets have been impacted by meteorites since the formation of our solar system. Note: they are called meteoroids when they're still in space, and meteorites when they land on a planet or moon.

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On Earth, we only see a few impact craters because of a couple of different reasons. First, most meteoroids never reach the Earth's surface because they burn up in the atmosphere. This is what we are seeing when we watch a shooting star during a meteor shower meteor refers to the visible streak of light. Second, impact craters from meteorites can be changed by geological forces like earthquakes and continental movementsor eroded away by atmospheric forces like wind or rain.

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There is no atmosphere on the moon, which means that falling meteoroids do not burn up and there is no weather to erode away the craters. In fact, the footprints of the astronauts who landed on the moon over 30 years ago are still there, perfectly preserved! Where can you find the few impact craters on the Earth?

There are only about scientifically-confirmed impact craters on the Earth. Not all of them are obvious because most are eroded, covered by sediment, or under water. Each crater has to be identified using several different kinds of clues. First, geological clues are found by looking for pieces of the exploded iron-rich meteorite, or for glass that formed during the impact. Satellite imaging can be used to visualize crater formations that are beneath the Earth's surface or a body of water.

Finally, chemical evidence is used to date the crater and find traces of elements that are more common in space than on our planet. By piecing together this evidence, scientists can study craters on Earth and link them to different periods of Earth's history.

This involves many different types of scientists, including astronomers, geologists, chemists, paleontologists, and meteorologists who actually study weather, and not meteorites. This has led to an interesting hypothesis being proposed about the formation of a sea, the extinction of the dinosaurs, and even the origins of life! The craters on both the Moon and Earth come in many sizes. And some are very deep, while others are shallow. Have you ever wondered why?

Vanessa and Chris from DragonflyTV did, so they conducted a science project to figure out how meteorite impacts can create so many different-looking craters. They hypothesized that if meteorites hit with different speeds, they would create craters with different depths and sizes. Do you think they were right? Vanessa and Chris really used their marbles for this project—watch the video and find out! Speed is not the only meteorite variable that could change the look of an impact crater.

In this science project you will investigate whether or not the size of a crater depends upon the size of the meteorite.

To test this, you will use different sized, nearly spherical objects as your "meteorites," like the objects shown in Figure 2. What types of clues will you look for in your investigation? How will studying an impact crater give you information about the collision, even if the meteorite is no longer there? Are there other clues of a meteorite impact that are important? Try one of our science activities for quick, anytime science explorations. The perfect thing to liven up a rainy day, school vacation, or moment of boredom.In small, differentiated ability groups, students build a model of the moon's surface with flour paste and drop a marble from different heights to discover how the speed of an object affects the size of the "crater" it makes.

They will record all information on an Experiment Data Sheet see attachments that has been adjusted differentiated to their level. The teacher will have determined the groups earlier. The following is the cover sheet of instructions attachment 4 each group receives. In addition, the groups will each get the worksheet fit to their group. See attachments. As Earth's nearest neighbor in space, the moon was the first object in the Solar System that people studied.

They observed that the moon's surface was very different from the Earth's surface. One difference was the large number of craters on the moon. In this investigation you will make a model of the moon's surface and perform an experiment to infer how the moon's craters were formed.

In your experiment you will find out how the height from which a marble is dropped representing the speed of the object onto a soft surface affects the size of the impression it makes. Your Account. Croix Catholic School, So. Further the understanding and use of the Scientific Method as they make a model of the moon's surface and conduct an experiment using their skills of stating a question, forming hypotheses, experimental design, observation, recording data, drawing conclusions and thinking logically to explain the formation of impact craters.

Allow students to do more of their own thinking as they work with partners who are at their own level of "expertise", and not rely so much on getting all the "right" answers by letting a more capable classmate do the thinking thus the differentiated work pages.

Students will practice the skills of working cooperatively, classroom safety, and careful use of materials. Using the metric ruler will reinforce the concept that the metric system is the globally accepted form of measurement and will review lessons taught earlier. Reinforce the concept that gravity is the force that pulls a smaller objects towards one another, and that the speed velocity of a smaller object rather than its distance from the larger is the cause of the size of the impact crater as well as the size and shape of the incoming object.

This activity is appropriate for an upper intermediate Gr. The physical experiment could also be done as a demonstration with the differentiated worksheets given to the appropriate groups. It has been prepared as a differentiated lesson in which 3 levels of academic learning are challenged. ELL students would most benefit from the middle or average group worksheet as they would neither move too fast or too slowly for a child with limited understanding of scientific terms in English, but can converse fairly well with peers.

See lesson activity description. It could also be given as a take-home activity for independent experimenting. From beginning to end, the class would need no less than 50 minutes. This includes the clean-up and a short wrap-up discussion before worksheets are turned in.

Craters and Meteorites

Pre-planning and preparations are necessary to be certain all lab materials are available and students are in predetermined ability groups. Place the pan in the center of the newspaper. Evenly cover the bottom of the aluminum pan with flour paste and smooth it out evenly.

Obtain enough additional dry flour to lightly cover the surface of the mixture in the pan. The flour paste is very gooey; coat the surface well. One team member now holds the meter stick straight up on the surface of the flour paste near the edge of the pan metric numerals should be facing away from stick holder.

Another team member will take the marble and drop it into the flour paste from the 20 cm mark on the meter stick. To avoid flour in your eyes, do not get too close to the pan as the marble is dropped. Carefully remove the marble and, with the smaller ruler, measure the outer width of the impression in the flour paste. Record your measurements on your Experiment Data sheet. Move the meter stick to a new spot and do steps 4 and 5 two more times.

Average the three trials and record the average on your data table. Repeat steps 4 and 5 above using the heights of 40 cm, 80 cm, and cm.You can whip up a moon-like crater with cake ingredients. The activity works in classrooms, camps and at home. We're here today with a fun and educational activity that you can do at home, at school or even at camp. And it involves making craters.

How to Make a Crater

Go outside tonight. Take a look at the moon and you'll see these circular features with lines coming out. Those circular features are craters. The way those craters were formed were from rocks coming from outer space and smashing in to the surface of the Moon, pulverizing the soil there, what we call "regolith," and spraying it out along those ejecta pattern rays.

You can make your very own craters. You start with about an inch of some flour, spread out nice and smooth, and then take something that is of color, like, these are little cake sprinkles, and, kind of, just sprinkle them evenly over the surface.

You can sprinkle it with your spoon, or sift it over the top, which will make a more even surface. The impactor, the rock, is outside because it actually bounced out. That happens sometimes in real life. And you see that it threw out a bunch of the subsurface material. And we have our own little geologic excavation. And some of our sprinkles got thrown up. And that represents the mineral diversity of the surface that was impacted. You see that the ejecta pattern is a little bit different. Notice there are no ejecta rays on this side.

They're all on that side. From looking at a crater, something we can tell is what sort of angle an impactor came in at. Remember, you can experiment by trying different layers of materials to put down in your pan to impact with different rocks. You can use different size rocks. You can try dropping from different heights or throwing at different angles.

Follow JPL All. Transcript: Hi! And the lines coming out are ejecta patterns - "rays. Then you need another layer. And what we've selected is cocoa. To simulate a rock impacting a surface, drop them from a reasonable height. I'm gonna use this big rock first. As you can see, this impactor made a very nice crater. This indentation is the crater.

The white things coming out, those are the rays, just like you see on the moon. Not all meteorites come in perpendicularly. Sometimes they come in at an angle. Take it and kinda chuck it at an angle. And then take a look at your ejecta patterns and see what that tells you about the crater.You need to login before you download the free activities.

You can register here. The probe is a lump of copper travelling at times the speed of a bullet. It is expected to blast a hole in the heart of the space rock, spraying out ice and dust. Analysing this event could shed light on the origin of the planets. This event will happen on The copper lump is the size of a school desk and will hit the comet at 23, mph 40 km per hour. This will make a crater and throw material into space. Note: we have now fixed problems people had downloading the game.

This will put the files in a new folder on your computer 3 To start the game, click on the file 'index. We are doubling this up with a computer game called Comet Chaser. Pupils have to choose the correct parameters to get their rocket to take off, sling shot round a planet, catch the asteroid and land a probe on it.

You will need Acrobat Reader installed to open the activity sheets. Why not start by showing the BBC's news story on video?

Page 2 is a help sheet. Speed is used rather than height to make it easier to predict the effect on the kinetic energy of the asteroid and thus the effect of the impact. For a fair test, these should be made of the same material e.

Mass is used rather than diameter to make it easier to predict the effect on the kinetic energy of the asteroid and thus the effect of the impact. Sprinkling powder paint over the surface with a sieve and tapping the container so it settles makes measurement easier. Pupils than plan their investigation, using the question prompts on the help sheet — page 2. Knowledge of the formula for kinetic energy is needed to make predictions about how the speed or mass of the asteroid will affect the impact.

Pupils are told that the bigger the kinetic energy, the bigger the crater and the bigger the debris range. Pupils can scale up their results to estimate the effects of a real impact, and also consider ways we could protect ourselves from a collision. They get more practice of calculations and thinking about probabilities.

Full answers and technician's notes are given on the downloadable version of the teacher's notes. Write your online review to share your feedback and classroom tips with other teachers. How well does it work, how engaging is it, how did you use it, and how could it be improved?

I like the format for this activity. Students really enjoyed dropping objects from various heights. Instead of using sand, I used flour and on the top layer I sprinkled tempera power so the students could see that the substance below is ejected up and to the side of the crater at various distances. It was awesome to have the impact speeds available at the different drop heights. It links science to real world applications.The good news is that most home noises are easy to eliminate without spending hours on repairs or a ton of money.

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On the opposite side of the reference spectrum, is Neil Youngs Tonights the Night. Possibly my favorite album of all time. Very real and somewhat stark. It reminds me of the importance of honesty and the power of simple human emotion.

And thanks for all the tips and insight Warren, Much appreciated and utilized. Hi Sean, that is a fantastic reference track. One of my oldest friends is Jute Butcher, Jute is an outside broadcast engineer who was with the BBC for years (his brother is Matt Butcher long time Blur FOH Mixer), Jute has magic ears and he would always use that song as a reference!.

So I highly agree and respect your choice of song. I really look forward to more of your contributions. Have a marvellous time recording and mixing, many thanks WarrenAs I listening to commercial recordings on different speakers, the music still holds up even though there might be a boost in the base when I listen on Rocket 5 and a boost in the high end when I listen on Yamaha 5.

With my mixes there is a major difference. What frequencies translate best on both speakers. How can I have my music "travel" more consistently. ThanksReference tracks are probably the thing I've struggled most with in mixing my own music.

This last tip helps a lot, but what's a good strategy for zeroing in on good, relevant reference tracks. Warren Huart Hi Sean, that is a fantastic reference track.